Twaits, Morrison & Knudson Co., L.A., CA & Boise, ID (200 units)
Smith, Hoffman & Wright Co., Portland, OR (616 units)
Twaits, Morrison & Knudsen built 100 "A" houses and 190
"B" houses at a contract price of $2,272,273.08. Ford
J. Twaits Company consisting of limited partners of
Ford J. Twaits, Edna M. Twaits and Jane E. Twaits with
offices in Los Angles, CA, and Morrison & Knudsen a
corporation of Boise, ID. Ford J. Twaits Company and
Morrison & Knudsen Company are both listed in Dunn and

308 "A" houses and 330 "B" houses were built by Smith,
Hoffman & Wright Co. It is believed that this company
was formed only for the construction of houses and
buildings on the Hanford Project. It is believed that
Mr. F. M. Cocrene, Project Manager for the Hoffman
Construction Co. that has several contracts on the
Project at the present time, was a masonary and
concrete superintendent under the Smith, Hoffman &
Wright Contract in 1944. The Smith, Hoffman & Wright
contract dated August 4, 1943 was for an estimated
contract price of $7,559,995.20 and consisted of the
building of houses, warehouse building, dormitories,
theatre building, fire pump house and dewage treatment
plant. Additional work was added to this contract until
the total contract price amounted to $17,096,861.36.
Narrative from the General Building Plans [November, 1943]

The "A" house is a two-story duplex residence, housing
two families. Its two units each have three bedrooms.
Each family unit is identical, the house being
symmetrical about the central axis, except that the
left hand unit is always the reverse in plan of the
right hand unit. This arrangements creates only one
party wall and provides each unit with three outside
walls, so that cross ventilation is possible in
practically all rooms of the house. In a desert-like
country this is an important comfort factor. During the
hottest weather, there is usually a gentle wind from
the west and southwest and, since the nights are
reasonably cool, window ventilation is highly

This fact was partly responsible for the selection of
the duplex as a basic unit. The row-type dwelling so
common in defense housing, although appropriate for
smaller units and having the advantage of lower
original cost per unit, seemed unsuitable for the
larger units in this development. Also, such houses are
difficult to plan without inner rooms, spaces poorly
lighted, and inadequate natural ventilation. In an area
with considerable temperature extremes, not only
seasonal but sometimes from day to night, the comfort
of the worker has a marked effect upon his efficiency.
Moreover, there would undoubtedly be a psychological
hazard in a too-cramped plan. Although city dwellers
are confined to narrow lots and restricted views, these
are an accepted part of their environment. In the
desert, where space is the key characteristic of the
view, a cramped village of cramped houses would be out
of character a palpable and conscious discord.

The form of this duplex is... box-like, but the designs
on the outside, which are basically colonial (in
proportion), make a dignified dwelling. Together with
other types of units in the blocks, there is no effect
of monotony. Inside, there is adequate living space for
a family of four to six people, depending upon their
ages and sexes. The living room, almost 13' x 23', is
ample by any modest standards. The dining room is of
the alcove type, and while not large, can expand on
occasion into the living room. The kitchen is adequate,
having floor space for two or three people to work at
one time, and the basement is sufficiently large for
drying laundry in inclement weather and for storing
trunks and other miscellaneous equipment. Upstairs, the
second story accommodates three bedrooms and a bath
adequately. All bedrooms are ample for double beds and
additional furniture; all have good light and good
ventilation. The sizes of all rooms are better than
minimum standards, yet the total arrangement forms a
compact unit in volume (a material factor in expense),
without extra external or re-entrant angles, which is
also a point in favor of economy.

In appointments, the "A" house is adequate without
oozing luxurious. Extra toilets on the first floor,
breakfast rooms, and similar additions are omitted. The
floors, walls, and built-ins are neat and pleasant; the
floors of most rooms are natural stained woods, with
the kitchen and bathroom floors linoleum. Walls and
trim are painted. Each bedroom is provided with closets
which will store a quantity of clothes, and in addition
to a linen closet upstairs, there is a coat closet on
the first floor. The kitchen has a built-in flush sink,
cabinets with linoleum work tops. There are five upper
cabinets for dishes and supplies, five lower cabinets
for pots, pans, and more supplies, six drawers and a
cutting board underneath the work shelf, two bin-
drawers on rollers, an enclosed space beneath the sink,
and a small full-length broom closet. Provided also are
an electric refrigerator and an electric stove. The
bathroom has a tub with shower, a lavatory with
medicine cabinet, and a water closet. Although these
appointments are not luxurious, there are all sanitary
and neat, and conform to the critical material
restrictions of the War Production Board.